The 1950s and 1960s were highly turbulent times in France: despite a dynamic economy ("les trente glorieuses" or "30 Glorious Years"), the country was torn by their colonial heritage (Vietnam and Indochina, Algeria), by their collective sense of guilt from the Vichy Regime, by their desire for renewed national prestige (Gaullism), and by conservative social tendencies in education and industry. French 204: Advanced Intermediate French Language and Culture - The second half of the two-semester program of intermediate French. The Dada movement—which began in a café in Switzerland in 1916—came to Paris in 1920, but by 1924 the writers around Paul Éluard, André Breton, Louis Aragon and Robert Desnos—heavily influenced by Sigmund Freud's notion of the unconscious—had modified dada provocation into Surrealism. Essayists Beckett • Item Information. 21-22) left an indelible mark of men’s fashion.. Some of the most important works of the century in French were written by foreign authors (Eugène Ionesco, Samuel Beckett). The Beat Generation was never a large movement in terms of sheer numbers, but in influence and cultural status they were more visible than any other competing aesthetic. The surrealist movement would continue to be a major force in experimental writing and the international art world until the Second World War. Sartre's theater, novels and short stories often show individuals forced to confront their freedom or doomed for their refusal to act. He appears in Alexander Dumas' novel The Three Musketeers (1844). Art, Literature, and Film History; Benjamin Franklin; Black History; China; Christmas; ... Flashback: Mall Shopping in the 1950s. Poets Course taught in French. To make the anthology as complete as possible, interesting information on exotic literary practices like ‘Oulipo’, names of French Nobel laureates, the long list of French French literature is the literature of France.It also includes literature that is written in French, even if the writer is not from France.There are countries besides France where French is also spoken. French literature 1950-2000 Did you know that French literature exists beyond 19th century and still continues after Albert Camus died en 1960 ? The Penguin Book of French Poetry: 1820-1950; With Prose Translations (Penguin Classics) The French passé antérieur ("anterior past") is the literary and historical equivalent of the past perfect (in French, the plus-que-parfait).It is used in literature, journalism, and historical accounts, for narration, and to indicate an action in the past that occurred before another action in the past. Paul Léautaud (1872-1956) was the author of a highly original personal diary chronicling the life of the Parisian literary world in the first half of the 20th century in his monumental 13-volume "Journal Littéraire", considered to be "the greatest study of character ever written" by Mavis Gallant, and "more devastating in its truthfulness than the Confessions of Rousseau" by his biographer Dr James Harding. Black Males in the Stadium: All ‘Bad Niggers’? The writers Georges Perec, Raymond Queneau, Jacques Roubaud are associated with the creative movement Oulipo (founded in 1960) which uses elaborate mathematical strategies and constraints (such as lipograms and palindromes) as a means of triggering ideas and inspiration. To find the work you're looking for start by looking through the author index. Graduates of literature programs may go on for further study in the subsets of English, American, or French literature, and ultimately teach at the high school or university level. (eds) Questions of Influence in Modern French Literature. Theater in the 1920s and 1930s went through further changes in a loose association of theaters (called the "Cartel") around the directors and producers Louis Jouvet, Charles Dullin, Gaston Baty and Ludmila and Georges Pitoëff. French Literature / Littérature Française. They produced works by the French writers Jean Giraudoux, Jules Romains, Jean Anouilh, Albert Camus and Jean-Paul Sartre, and also of Greek and Shakespearean theater, and works by Luigi Pirandello, Anton Chekhov and George Bernard Shaw. Experimental literary form produced in the 1950s by French novelists including Alain Robbe-Grillet and Nathalie Sarraute. During the 1950s, the United States was the world’s strongest military power. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Palgrave Studies in Modern European Literature. In: Baldwin T., Fowler J., de Medeiros A. Looking for an examination copy? Saucy Striptease the 1950s Way! 1950s French Literature Nobelist is a crossword puzzle clue. Surrealism • Existentialism Other experiments in theatre involved decentralisation, regional theater, "popular theater" (designed to bring working classes to the theater), and theater heavily influenced by Bertolt Brecht (largely unknown in France before 1954), and the productions of Arthur Adamov and Roger Planchon. The First World War generated even more radical tendencies. French Literature since 1950. by deleted user. Learn more about Napoleon Bonaparte, Louis XIV and the French Revolution. This period spans the last decades of the Third Republic (1871–1940) (including World War I), the period of World War II (the German occupation and the Vichy–1944), the provisional French government (1944–1946) the Fourth Republic (1946–1958) and the Fifth Republic (1959-). Los Angeles Philippe The Original Originator Of The French Dip Postcard 1950s. In fact, the years after WW2 displayed an amazing literary creativity; some of those works could outshine everything that was done before. Palgrave Studies in Modern European Literature. Editor: John D. Lyons, University of Virginia; Because of the creative spirit of the French literary and artistic movements at the beginning of the century, France gained the reputation as being the necessary destination for writers and artists. $28.99 (P) Part of Cambridge Companions to Literature. Nouveau roman French literature - French literature - From 1900 to 1940: French writing of the first quarter of the 20th century reveals a dissatisfaction with the pessimism, skepticism, and narrow rationalism of the preceding age and displays a new confidence in human possibilities, although this is undercut by World War I. Louis-Ferdinand Céline's novels—such as Voyage au bout de la nuit (Journey to the End of Night) -- used an elliptical, oral, and slang-derived style to rail against the hypocrisies and moral lapses of his generation (his anti-semitic tracts in the 1940s, however, led to his condemnation for collaboration). Literary prizes, Molière • Racine • Guillaume Apollinaire radicalized the Baudelairian poetic exploration of modern life in evoking planes, the Eiffel Tower and urban wastelands, and he brought poetry into contact with cubism through his Calligrammes, a form of visual poetry. Mateo Askaripour is a Brooklyn-based writer whose debut novel, Black Buck—which Colson Whitehead calls a “mesmerizing novel, executing a high... De vrucht van de schande ~ De postwissel : twee novellen, Erotica : alle verhalen uit Venusdelta en Lieve vogeltjes, La petite fille qui aimait trop les allumettes, Partage de midi : Version de 1906 suivie de deux versions primitives inédites et de lettres, également inédites, à Ysé, A Debut Novelist's 2020 Reading that Mirrors Our Timeline. Starring in only three movies within one year, Dean was killed in a car accident at the age of 24 in 1955. The expression of … In the late 1930s, the works of Hemingway, Faulkner and Dos Passos came to be translated into French, and their prose style had a profound impact on the work of writers like Jean-Paul Sartre, André Malraux and Albert Camus. The surrealists technique was particularly well suited for poetry and theater, although Breton, Aragon and Cocteau wrote longer prose works as well, such as Breton's novel Nadja. Many of the developments in French literature in this period parallel changes in the visual arts. Important foreign writers who have lived and worked in France (especially Paris) in the twentieth century include: Oscar Wilde, Gertrude Stein, Ernest Hemingway, William S. Burroughs, Henry Miller, Anaïs Nin, James Joyce, Samuel Beckett, Julio Cortázar, Vladimir Nabokov, Edith Wharton and Eugène Ionesco. Inspired by Rimbaud, Paul Claudel used a form of free verse to explore his mystical conversion to Catholicism. André Gide continued to experiment with the novel, and his most sophisticated exploration of the limits of the traditional novel is found in The Counterfeiters, a novel ostensibly about a writer trying to write a novel. In theater, the conception of "création collective" developed by Ariane Mnouchkine's Théâtre du Soleil refused division into writers, actors and producers: the goal was for total collaboration, for multiple points of view, for an elimination of separation between actors and the public, and for the audience to seek out their own truth. Popular fiction and genre fiction at the start of the 20th century also included detective fiction, like the mysteries of the author and journalist Gaston Leroux who is credited with the first "locked-room puzzle" -- The Mystery of the Yellow Room, featuring the amateur detective Joseph Rouletabille (1908) -- and the immensely popular The Phantom of the Opera (1910). Another important influence was the German poet Paul Celan. Your IB score in French is 5. 16th century • 17th century It's a good manner to choose the perfect immersion program in France. The works, positions and thinking of Albert Camus are also emblematic of a reckoning in the French intellectual circles of post World War II, signaling the moral imperative to distance from Communism. In the first half of the century the genre of the novel also went through further changes. 20th century • Contemporary, Francophone literature https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=20th-century_French_literature&oldid=983212037, Articles needing additional references from November 2017, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Higgins, Ian. The 1950s and 1960s were highly turbulent times in France: despite a dynamic economy ("les trente glorieuses" or "30 Glorious Years"), the country was torn by their colonial heritage (Vietnam and Indochina, Algeria), by their collective sense of guilt from the Vichy Regime, by their desire for renewed national prestige (Gaullism), and by conservative social tendencies in education and industry. Kritzman, Lawrence D., and Brian J. Reilly, eds. French and Italian Dictionaries. The later poets Claude Royet-Journoud, Anne-Marie Albiach, Emmanuel Hocquard, and to a degree Jean Daive, describe a shift from Heidegger to Ludwig Wittgenstein and a reevaluation of Mallarmé's notion of fiction and theatricality; these poets were also influenced by certain English-language modern poets (such as Ezra Pound, Louis Zukofsky, William Carlos Williams, and George Oppen) along with certain American postmodern and avant garde poets loosely grouped around the language poetry movement (such as Michael Palmer, Keith Waldrop and Susan Howe; with her husband Keith Waldrop, Rosmarie Waldrop has a profound association with these poets, due in no small measure to her translations of Edmond Jabès and the prose of Paul Celan into English). Similar issues appear in the novels of Henri Troyat. For beginning learners, we offer an enjoyable way to improve your comprehension with the brief, text-based lessons below. or "Théâtre National Populaire.". But radical experimentation was not appreciated by all literary and artistic circles in the early 20th century. Forster’s teenage years coincided with the 1950s, and I mined her vivid details of, for example, laundry work, hire-purchase, and trying to get into a university. His father was fond of literature. New York: Brooklyn Museum Costume Collection at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009.300.299. 1,088 books based on 1478 votes: The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. At the end of the test, click on the Result button below and you will be presented how many you got right and the correct answers to those you got wrong. Author(s): Gabel, Aubrey Ann | Advisor(s): Lucey, Michael | Abstract: Serious Play: Formal Innovation and Politics in French literature from the 1950s to the present investigates how 20th- and 21st-century French authors play with literary form as a means of engaging with contemporary history and politics. Other writers associated with surrealism include: Jean Cocteau, René Crevel, Jacques Prévert, Jules Supervielle, Benjamin Péret, Philippe Soupault, Pierre Reverdy, Antonin Artaud (who revolutionized theater), Henri Michaux and René Char. Maurice Leblanc also rose to prominence with the adventures of gentleman-thief Arsene Lupin, who has gained a popularity akin to Sherlock Holmes in the Anglophone world. Hemingway wrote, "If you are lucky enough to have lived in Paris as a young man, then wherever you go for the rest of your life, it stays with you, for Paris is a moveable feast.It's a book lover's dream to wander the very streets that inspired Marcel Proust, Émile Zola, Samuel Beckett, Albert Camus, Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir and so many others. Authors like Georges Perec, Monique Wittig, Serious Play: Formal Innovation and Politics in French literature from the 1950s to the present investigates how 20 th- and 21 st-century French authors play with literary form as a means of engaging with contemporary history and politics. It explores the notion of the ‘problematic hero’ and introduces a number of major works from a wide variety of periods, styles, and genres, examining how each fits into society and reflects its concerns and values. Your IB score in French is 5. Pair of Vintage 1950s French School Books Giraffe Tiger NoteBooks Exercise Work Books alacarteatelier. The 1930s and 1940s saw significant contributions by citizens of French colonies, as Albert Camus or Aimé Césaire, the latter whom created, along with Léopold Sédar Senghor and Léon Damas the literary review L'Étudiant Noir, which was a forerunner of the Négritude movement. At the same time, boulevard drama felt on its neck the breath of the avant-garde; and from the 1960s onward French writers began stimulating new approaches to almost every field of rational inquiry. From the 1950s, proponents of the nouveau roman, or New Novel, mounted a radical attack on the conventions of the genre. Witty voiceover and amusing footage of a man sweating. Movement in art, literature, and film. The French language is the world’s second most widely used in international circles .French literature though only about 900 years old , is very rich and has to its credit 14 Nobel laureates.Names likeSartre,VictoHugo,Baudelaire,A.Dumas,Maupassant, Voltaire, Rousseau Moliere are quite popular among Indians and tamilians. French Texts for Beginners. French literature from the first half of the century was dominated by Romanticism, which is associated with such authors as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, père, François-René de Chateaubriand, Alphonse de Lamartine, Gérard de Nerval, Charles Nodier, Alfred de Musset, Théophile Gautier and Alfred de Vigny. The unique poetry of Francis Ponge exerted a strong influence on a variety of writers (both phenomenologists and those from the group "Tel Quel"). Proust Best old movies All movies are checked for quality, proper sound volume and easy viewing experience. For more on French history, see History of France. The events of May 1968 marked a watershed in the development of a radical ideology of revolutionary change in education, class, family and literature. In: Baldwin T., Fowler J., de Medeiros A. Psychological analysis was also central to François Mauriac's novels, although he would come to be seen by Sartre as representative of an outdated fatalism. Truffaut), and songs (e.g. Hidden Lives is also a celebration. In 1952? The third edition has an extra chapter on very modern France. Georges Bernanos's novels used other formal techniques (like the "journal form") to further psychological exploration. Having won the most number of ‘Nobel’ prizes in literature, France has produced some of the greatest literary minds. There are related clues (shown below). We offer searchable online literature for the student, educator, or enthusiast. But his portrayal of Jim Stark in Rebel Without a Cause (Figs. Sartori, Eva Martin and Dorothy Wynne Zimmerman, eds. Frédéric Mistral (Awarded: 1904) Nobel Prize Citation: ‘in recognition of the fresh originality and true … Price: US $3.99. Literature of Quebec Clue: 1950s French Literature Nobelist. Zola • Their influence was felt in theatre, poetry, prose fiction. Malraux's novels of Spain and China during the civil wars confront individual action with historical forces. Condition:--not specified. Postcolonial literature French literature was profoundly shaped by the historical events of the century and was also shaped by—and a contributor to—the century's political, philosophical, moral, and artistic crises. Alfred Jarry united symbolism with elements from marionette theater and a kind of proto-surrealism. Others may use the solid foundation an English literature degree provides to pursue careers in digital publishing, media and journalism, marketing and public relations, and advertising. The defining novel of the 1950s “Beat Generation” (which Kerouac named), On the Road is a semiautobiographical tale of a bohemian cross-country adventure, narrated by character Sal Paradise. Twentieth century French literature did not undergo an isolated development and reveals the influence of writers and genres from around the world, including Walt Whitman, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Franz Kafka, John Dos Passos, Ernest Hemingway, William Faulkner, Luigi Pirandello, the British and American detective novel, James Joyce, Jorge Luis Borges, Bertolt Brecht and many others. Every night, the Beast asks Beauty to marry him, and every night she rejects him until finally she agrees, only to find when she wakes the handsome prince of whom she has been dreaming of nightly. Focus on building higher proficiency levels in all four skills. To a certain degree, these developments closely paralleled changes in cinema in the same period (the Nouvelle Vague). Lists are re-scored approximately every 5 minutes. Forster’s teenage years coincided with the 1950s, and I mined her vivid details of, for example, laundry work, hire-purchase, and trying to get into a … Philippe Noiret was one of French cinema's most familiar faces who appeared in more than 140 films in a career that spanned more than half a century. Kerouac’s odyssey has influenced artists such as Bob Dylan, Tom Waits, and Hunter S. Thompson and films such as Easy Rider. In American in the 1950s, a new cultural and literary movement staked its claim on the nation’s consciousness. French 204: Advanced Intermediate French Language and Culture - The second half of the two-semester program of intermediate French. Inspired by the theatrical experiments in the early half of the century and by the horrors of the war, the so-called avant-garde Parisian theater, "New Theater" or "Theatre of the Absurd" around the writers Eugène Ionesco, Samuel Beckett, Jean Genet, Arthur Adamov, Fernando Arrabal refused simple explanations and abandoned traditional characters, plots and staging. Spanning a multitude of periods, genres and forms, the history of French literature provides a wealth of unequalled works which have sparked literary movements, created new conventions, and entertained millions. Villeneuve’s tale features many subplots and fantastical devic… The French dictionary has over 250,000 translations and the Italian dictionary has nearly 200,000. New-York, 1950-51.Wool. In this version, the Beast is a visuallyterrifying yet gentle creature who treats Beauty with great care and kindness. WordReference has two of its own dictionaries plus those of Collins. The tradition of the Balzac and Zola inspired roman-fleuve continued to exert a profound attraction, as in Romain Rolland's Jean-Christophe (1906–1912). The early years of the century (often called the "Belle époque") saw radical experiments in all genres and Symbolism and Naturalism underwent profound changes. (eds) Questions of Influence in Modern French Literature. "French Poetry of the Great War.". Votes: 37,936 | Gross: $14.10M At the end of the test, click on the Result button below and you will be presented how many you got right and the correct answers to those you got wrong. Led by André Breton, who produced the Surrealist Manifesto (1924), the surrealists were inspired by the thoughts and visions of the subconscious mind. Pagnol, Proust, Sarraute, Laye, Morgièvre), movies (e.g. We will examine various representations of childhood in literature (e.g. In turn, French literature has also had a radical impact on world literature. The Cambridge Companion to French Literature. Anatole France, Maurice Barrès, Paul Bourget were leading authors of the period who employed fiction as a convenient vehicle for ideas about men and things. 5 out of 5 stars (391) 391 reviews $ 15.40 FREE shipping Short story writers, Naturalism • Symbolism The French language is beautiful, but when strung together to paint lovely pictures and create lyrical melodies in French poems, it becomes even more so. By category He was born on October 1, 1930, in Lille, Nord, France, into a middle class family of shopkeepers. Adding to your cart. 20th-century French literature is literature written in French from 1900 to 1999. Your AP score in French is 3 (Literature Test) or 4 (Language Test). Here we list twelve pre-World War II classics you have to read. Critics Literature of Haiti, Writers • He was awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in literature in 2008 in recognition of his being an "author of new departures, poetic adventure, and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization." French Literature, Sport and Masculinity from the 1920s to the 1950s Bettmann Archive / Getty Images. From shop alacarteatelier. Popular and bourgeois tastes were relatively conservative. French literature Many of these ideas were also key to the works of Maurice Blanchot. We currently have over 3500 full books and over 4400 short stories and poems by over 260 authors. The influence of surrealism will be of great importance on poets like Saint-John Perse or Edmond Jabès, for example. 1 - Christian Dior (French, 1905–1957). In 1950, Diners Club, the first modern credit card was introduced, which would eventually change the financial lives of every American in the years to come. . Learn more about Napoleon Bonaparte, Louis XIV and the French Revolution. T hough he lived an astonishingly short life, James Dean had an undeniable influence on men’s fashion in the 1950s. Having won the most number of ‘Nobel’ prizes in literature, France has produced some of the greatest literary minds. French language, Medieval Others, such as Georges Bataille, created their own movement and group in reaction. The poetic dramas of Edmond Rostand, especially Cyrano de Bergerac in 1897, were immensely popular at the start of the 20th century, as too the "well-made" plays and bourgeois farces of Georges Feydeau. Author(s): Gabel, Aubrey Ann | Advisor(s): Lucey, Michael | Abstract: Serious Play: Formal Innovation and Politics in French literature from the 1950s to the present investigates how 20th- and 21st-century French authors play with literary form as a means of engaging with contemporary history and politics. Valjean, a former criminal, has atoned for his past and now finds himself in the midst of the French Revolution, avoiding a law-obsessed policeman hell-bent on capturing him. Nouveau Roman (“New Novel”) (c. 1955–1970): A French movement, led by Alain Robbe-Grillet, that dispensed with traditional elements of the novel, such as plot and character, in favor of neutrally recording the experience of sensations and things. Important historical events for French literature include: the Dreyfus Affair; French colonialism and imperialism in Africa, the Far East (French Indochina) and the Pacific; the Algerian War of Independence (1954–1962); the important growth of the French Communist Party; the rise of Fascism in Europe; the events of May 1968. It's a good manner to choose the perfect immersion program in France. In writing and in the visual arts, and by using automatic writing, creative games (like the cadavre exquis) and altered states (through alcohol and narcotics), the surrealists tried to reveal the workings of the unconscious mind. These dictionaries continue to grow and improve as well. Sartre, Camus, Malraux and Simone de Beauvoir (who is also famous as one of the forerunners of Feminist writing) are often called "existentialist writers", a reference to Sartre's philosophy of Existentialism (although Camus refused the title "existentialist"). French texts for beginners (A1/A2) and intermediates (B1/B2) to practice your French reading and comprehension skills. Your AP score in French is 3 (Literature Test) or 4 (Language Test). In the decades after 1950, disillusion, cynicism, and experimentalism remained the dominant characteristics of French literature. Britain in the years immediately following World War … This page was last edited on 12 October 2020, at 22:26. Don't forget subscribe to this channel. Jules Romains's 27-volume novel Les Hommes de bonne volonté (1932–1946), Roger Martin du Gard's eight-part novel cycle The Thibaults (1922–1940), and Marcel Proust's seven-part masterpiece À la recherche du temps perdu (In Search of Lost Time, 1913–1927) expanded on the roman-fleuve model. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which are awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. In the novel, André Gide's early works, especially L'Immoraliste (1902), pursue the problems of freedom and sensuality that symbolism had posed; Alain-Fournier's novel Le Grand Meaulnes is a deeply felt portrait of a nostalgic past. Los Angeles Philippe The Original Originator Of The French Dip Postcard 1950s. For more on this, see French art of the 20th century. And yet it was the attitude of those writers and critics in the 1930s and 1940s that shaped French literature - the ideas of Derrida, Foucault, de Man, Deleuze, and Ricoeur - and has so profoundly influenced literary enterprise in the English-speaking world since 1968. Fig. French Literature: A Very Short Introduction examines texts that portray protagonists whose adventures and conflicts reveal shifts in literary and social practices. French Migrants to the U.S., 1820-1950. Welcome to The Literature Network! Starting from the ‘Golden Age’ of French literature, in the 19th century, French writers have always been dominant in the pool of intellectuals in Europe and their literature is characterized by patriotic fervor and great love for the language. Starting from the ‘Golden Age’ of French literature, in the 19th century, French writers have always been dominant in the pool of intellectuals in Europe and their literature is characterized by patriotic fervor and great love for the language. French Literature / Littérature Française. Poetry in the post-war period followed a number of interlinked paths, most notably deriving from surrealism (such as with the early work of René Char), or from philosophical and phenomenological concerns stemming from Heidegger, Friedrich Hölderlin, existentialism, the relationship between poetry and the visual arts, and Stéphane Mallarmé's notions of the limits of language. The works, positions and thinking of Albert Camusare also emblematic of a reckoning in the French intellectual circl… The theater director Jacques Copeau emphasized training an actor to be a complete person and rejected the Italian stage for something closer to the Elizabethan model, and his vision would have a profound impact on the "Cartel" of the 1920s and 1930s (see below). 2009: Herta Müller literature from 1950 to the end of the century. It was popular in the 1800s and early 1900s, but fell out of favor in the 1950s… Another post-1968 change was the birth of "Écriture féminine" promoted by the feminist Editions des Femmes, with new women writers as Chantal Chawaf, Hélène Cixous, Luce Irigaray ... From the 1960s on, many of the most daring experiments in French literature have come from writers born in French overseas departments or former colonies. The historic figure Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642), born Armand du Plessis, was so-called because he became the first Duke of Richelieu. Coudurier P. (2013) The Survival of Sade in French Literature of the 1950s. A similar sense of freedom from political oppression or from intolerance (such as anti-homosexual discrimination) has drawn other authors and writers to France. This Francophone literature includes the prize-winning novels of Tahar ben Jelloun (Morocco), Patrick Chamoiseau (Martinique), Amin Maalouf (Lebanon) and Assia Djebar (Algeria). 1950s French Literature Nobelist is a crossword puzzle clue that we have spotted 1 time. Balzac These countries include Belgium, Switzerland, Canada, Senegal, Algeria, and Morocco.Works that are written in French but not from France are called Francophone literature A dancer in a Raymond Revuebar club performs a very saucy striptease. France is a large European country with a diverse population and a rich history. Director: Bille August | Stars: Liam Neeson, Geoffrey Rush, Uma Thurman, Christopher Adamson. The Swiss writer Blaise Cendrars was close to Apollinaire, Pierre Reverdy, Max Jacob and the artists Chagall and Léger, and his work has similarities with both surrealism and cubism. Poets working within these philosophical/language concerns—especially concentrated around the review "L'Ephémère"—include Yves Bonnefoy, André du Bouchet, Jacques Dupin, Claude Esteban, Roger Giroux and Philippe Jaccottet. For literature made after 1999, see the article Contemporary French literature. Coudurier P. (2013) The Survival of Sade in French Literature of the 1950s. The stage was further radicalised both in the direction of expressionism (the "théâtre de l'oeuvre" of Aurélien Lugné-Poe) and hyper-realism (the theater of André Antoine). RICHELIEU French From the name of the town of Richelieu, derived from French riche "wealthy" and lieu "place". 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