If you have any useful information about this plant, please leave a comment. Of course we didn’t think it would spread so quickly and allowed it to grow. in Knox City and Mornington Peninsula Shire) and has been recorded in conservation areas (e.g. Persicaria sagittata (L.) H.Gross (Polygonaceae) has long been used in Indonesian traditional medicine to treat diarrhea, skin diseases, and internal problems. This name is a synonym of Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) Delarbre. There are six stamens, two partially fused carpels and two styles. A. troublesome weed. Bishkatali or Pale persicaria (Persicaria lapathifolia, family: Polygonaceae) is an annual herb attaining a height of 1-2.5 m. The plant is found throughout the tropical world. medicinal plants used in Sout h Afric a (R oberts, 1990; Hutch ings et al., 1996; V an Wyk et al., 1997 ; Mander, 1998; V an Wyk and Gericke, 2000). How to use this site; The Plant List. Astringent Diuretic Lithontripic Poultice Rubefacient Vermifuge The leaves are astringent, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge [9, 21, 53, 178, 222]. Last update on 2019-06-13: Now containing 11906 plants. The record derives from WCSP (in review) (data supplied on 2012-03-23) which reports it as a synonym with original publication details: Sp. Fairly rare redshank (P. maculosa) looks quite like pale persicaria. An infusion has been used as a treatment for gravel and stomach pains. Medicinal. Once used as medicinal plant in herbal remedies. How to use this site; The Plant List. It also appears on some local environmental weed lists (e.g. The Keres, Navajo, and Potawatomi prepared medicinal infusions with Persicaria lapathifolia, and the Zuni used decoctions made from the plants as cathartic and emetic drugs (D. E. Moerman 1998). linicola Persicaria lapathifolia (Linnaeus) Delarbre, subsp. Rast (New Delhi) 32: 184. Useful Tropical Plants Database 2014 by Brit. Polygonum lapathifolium), known as pale persicaria,[2] is a plant of the family Polygonaceae. lanata (Roxb.) Despite the wide usages of this plant in the traditional circles for the treatment of various ailments, the phytochemical information pertaining to the seeds of this plant and its microbial activity has not been addressed. lapathifolia. all its thickets. medicinal plants used in Sout h Afric a (R oberts, 1990; Hutch ings et al., 1996; V an Wyk et al., 1997 ; Mander, 1998; V an Wyk and Gericke, 2000). Common usage includes the flowering stems as a soothing astringent tea for stomach pain. It can grow explosively in seasonal water basins, receding waterlines of lakeshores or any moist disturbed area, and at one time was designated a county-level noxious weed. Reply; Rebecca Wallace October 7, 2014, 2:33 pm. Camera location: 51° 01′ 43.6″ N, 13° 40′ 20.2″ E Other common names for the plant include pale smartweed, curlytop knotweed, and willow weed. Each leaf base has stipules which are fused into a stem-enclosing sheath that is loose and fringed with few if any hairs at the upper end. It can grow explosively in seasonal water basins, receding waterlines of lakeshores or any moist disturbed area, and at one time was designated a county-level noxious weed. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. In Europe, the plant has been used as diuretic and emmenagogue and to regulate menstrual irregularities. Rationale: Classified as an NHP under Schedule 1 item 1 (plant or plant material) of the NHP Regulations. linicola (Sutulov) Tzvelev, Novosti Sist. stipulacea (Flora North America 2010). It is similar to and can be difficult to distinguish from the native Nodding Smartweed (Persicaria lapathifolia) and more so the non-native Lady's Thumb (Persicaria maculosa), both of which share the same general habitats and a number of overlapping characteristics. Pale persicaria is divided in two subspecies, which are the more common ssp. Use them in commercial designs under lifetime, perpetual & worldwide rights. lapathifolia [NBU – 10331] H A Mar – Sept. Ab Throughout marshy lands of W. Bengal; India, Pakistan, Temperate Asia, Japan, N & W Africa, N America, Europe. Diuretic & expectorant. emersa and var. Persicaria sagittata (L.) H.Gross (Polygonaceae) has long been used in Indonesian traditional medicine to treat diarrhea, skin diseases, and internal problems. Redshank (Persicaria maculosa) is regarded as an environmental weed in Victoria and it is seen as a potential threat to one or more vegetation formations in this state. BASIONYM: Polygonum linicola Susulov 1917. Persicaria lapathifolia (syn. Persicaria maculosa (syn. 2000. Other common names for the plant include pale smartweed, curlytop knotweed, and willow weed. Polygonum lapathifolium), known as pale persicaria, is a plant of the family Polygonaceae.It is closely related to Persicaria maculosa and as such is considered a weed in Britain and Europe. with help from J. 20140624Persicaria lapathifolia1.jpg 3,648 × 2,736; 2.22 MB This name is a synonym of Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) Delarbre. It is a very common weed in Bangladesh. - Flora Batava - Permission granted to use under GFDL by Kurt Stueber. pallida and more reddish ssp. Persicaria decipiens Food: Vegetable lapathifolia * (Spotted Knotweed) lidvololenkhonyane, Medicinal: Medicinal for venereal disease senegalensis Food: Vegetable forma albotomentosa forma senegalensis: Pupalia lappacea var. Persicaria lapathifolia subsp. A decoction of the plant has been used as a foot and leg soak in the treatment of rheumatism. glabrum Burtt Davy [family POLYGONACEAE] Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) Gray [family POLYGONACEAE] Type of Polygonum glabrum Willd. Leaves are green, glabrous, ovate-oblong, 7-18 cm and 5-8 cm wide, … Antiseptic Astringent Febrifuge Stomachic The whole plant is antiseptic and astringent. Organ Pipes National Park and Yarra Bend Park) in Victoria. pallida and more reddish ssp. Non-native Lady's-thumb, formerly Polygonum persicaria, has become widely established across North America and is one of the most common Smartweeds found in Minnesota. ]. Polygonum persicaria biforme (Wahlenb.) Persicaria attenuata pulchra (Blume) K.L.Wilson, Persicaria saporoviensis (Klokov) Tzvelev, Persicaria tomentosa (Schrank) E.P.Bicknell, Polygonum ferrugineum patagonicum (Speg.) It used to be cultivated as a dye … The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs). Herbs - Medicinal plants usage and Identification Data base Menu. ... Uferknöterich, Persicaria lapathifolia, Polygonum lapathifolium Amphibious Bistort known scientifically as Persicaria amphibia or … The species is found growing on the sea shore and in disturbed ground such as arable land, gardens, waste ground, rubbish tips and road verges. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Check for more information on the species: African Plants Database: Names, synonymy and distribution: Global Plant Initiative Tracheophyta › Magnoliopsida › Polygonaceae › Persicaria › Persicaria lapathifolia. var. [3][4], Persicaria lapathifolia is found in many parts of both the Old World and New World. scabrinerve Hook.f. Decoctions from root used as cathartic and emetic drug Persicaria lapathifolia (Linnaeus) Delarbre var. linicola Vyss. Persicaria lapathifolia is an erect, annual plant growing up to 180cm tall. An infusion has been used in the treatment of stomach complaints and fevers. Among them, Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Delarbre (Synonym: Polygonum hydropiper L.) has gained tremendous attention due to its diverse phytochemistry and medicinal uses. Persicaria lapathifolia (syn. Rast (New Delhi) 32: 184. Range: Throughout the United States, including the western states. The Keres, Navajo, and Potawatomi prepared medicinal infusions with Persicaria lapathifolia, and the Zuni used decoctions made from the plants as cathartic and emetic drugs (D. E. Moerman 1998). BASIONYM: Polygonum linicola Susulov 1917. Most importantly,P. Redshank looks a lot like pale persicaria (P. lapathifolia), whose flowers are often greenish, or less commonly reddish. Macloskie, Polygonum pensylvanicum oneilii (Brenckle) Hultén. linicola (Sutulov) Tzvelev, Novosti Sist. Rumex nepalensis 14. Persicaria pensylvanica: flowers with 5 tepals and inflorescence thicker, 10-15 mm wide, usually upright or slightly arched (vs. P. lapathifolia, flowers usually with 4 tepals, inflorescence slender, 5-11 mm wide, usually arched or drooping) Persicaria lapathifolia (Linnaeus) Gray, Nat. Alternative Uses of Spotted Smartweed P. hydropiper is also known as Water pepper or Smart pepper in English, “Bishkatali” in Bengali and has a cosmopolitan distribution ( Oany et al., 2017 ). E. S. Publisher Reference Publications, Inc. Year 1985 ISBN 0-917256-20-4 Description Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Pale persicaria is divided in two subspecies, which are the more common ssp. Common names: Bishkatali, Pale Persicaria. lappacea * (Forest Burr) isinama … Small pink flowers. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. A decoction of the plant, mixed with flour, has been used as a … Introduction: Persicaria amphibia is a highly polymorphic aquatic species with two recognized but intergrading varieties in North America: var. The fruit is a rounded, flattened nut. Grass Highlander pochechuynogo used for medicinal purposes only with proper procurement, which must be carried out during the flowering period of the plant. Persicaria lapathifolia (syn. has a long-hairy ochrea, and by the styles that are fused from the base to halfway. diarrhoeah and infectious diseases, and the leaves and young shoots can be eaten in salads. Add a one-line explanation of what this file represents. An infusion has been used in the treatment of stomach complaints and fevers. An infusion has been used as a treatment for gravel and stomach pains. The leaf blades often have a dark-coloured blotch in the centre and are lanceolate or narrowly elliptical and have entire margins. It is widespread across Eurasia from Iceland south to Portugal and east to Japan. Polygonum is a genus of about 130 species of flowering plant in the buckwheat and knotweed family Polygonaceae.Common names include knotweed and knotgrass (though the common names may refer more broadly to plants from Polygonaceae).In the Middle English glossary of herbs Alphita (c. 1400–1425), it was known as ars-smerte. hydropiperalso has a wide range of traditional uses for medicinal purposes. & Tubtimtong based Ethnoveterinary Formulations by Indigenous Cowherd Community Get link; Family: Polygonaceae. Medicinal Plants of China Publication Author Duke. Redshank has been used as a medicinal herb to treat e.g. has a long-hairy ochrea, and by the styles that are fused from the base to halfway. The Cherokee used the crushed leaves to treat rash caused by poison ivy. Medicinal use of Red Leg: The leaves are astringent, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge. 360 1753. I hope you enjoy my board & please feel free to pin how much you like. A. troublesome weed. The plant produces a soft white mass, a froth like that of soap. 2: 270. It is a very common weed in Bangladesh. Captions. diarrhoeah and infectious diseases, and the leaves and young shoots can be eaten in salads. Richard Morris. It is closely related to Redshank and as such is considered a weed in Britain and Europe. Genus: Persicaria. Polygonum persicaria) is an annual plant in the buckwheat family, Polygonaceae.Common names include lady's thumb, spotted lady's thumb, Jesusplant, and redshank. It is in flower from June to October, and the seeds ripen from August to October. Occurrence: Pale persicaria is a native annual found throughout the UK in waste places and cultivated ground especially on damp soils. Polygonum lapathifolium L. [=Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) Delarbre] is a widespread and variable species.However, P. lapathifolium normally reproduces autogamously and this has led to the production of numerous pure lines, many of which are locally constant and have been named as species or subspecies. We have never seen such a giant version of this plant. Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) Gray, (Polygonum lapathifolium, P. tomentosum L.) Weed Type: Annual Broad-leaved Weeds. Organ Pipes National Park and Yarra Bend Park) in Victoria. Persicaria lapathifolia (family Polygonaceae) is among the medicinal plant that has been commonly visited by traditional healers in some parts of Ethiopia. It mostly grows on lowland and on the edge of ponds and canals. Pl. in Knox City and Mornington Peninsula Shire) and has been recorded in conservation areas (e.g. It should leave about 2-3 plants every 2-3 sq.m. Persicaria capitata 15. Diuretic & expectorant. P. hydropiper is also known as Water pepper or Smart pepper in English, “Bishkatali” in Bengali and has a cosmopolitan distribution ( Oany et al., 2017 ). Persicaria decipiens Food: Vegetable lapathifolia * (Spotted Knotweed) lidvololenkhonyane, Medicinal: Medicinal for venereal disease senegalensis Food: Vegetable forma albotomentosa forma senegalensis: Pupalia lappacea var. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Related Objects : Image Gallery : Distribution Map: Map: Illustration: Illustration . The leaves are alternate with short stalks, often densely hairy underneath. An infusion has been used as a treatment for gravel and stomach pains. Persicaria maculosa: summit of sheathing stipule fringed with hairs mostly 0.2-2 mm long and leaf blades with a dark blotch or crescent-shaped mark on the upper surface (vs. P. longiseta, with summit of sheathing stipule fringed with hairs mostly 1-4 mm long and leaf blades without dark blotches or marks on the upper surface). It is closely related to Redshank and as such is considered a weed in Britain and Europe. Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature Top of page. 2000. Among them, Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Delarbre (Synonym: Polygonum hydropiper L.) has gained tremendous attention due to its diverse phytochemistry and medicinal uses. We bought a plant once with a variety of smartweed growing in it. It is hardy to zone (UK) 5. Gargles with Bistort are effective in curing these mouth problems. This plant flowers from July to September in northern temperate regions. Habitat: Edges of ponds, shallow lakes, marshes, and streams; wet fields, areas subject to seasonal flooding, irrigation ditches, pastures, orchards, rice fields, grain fields, irrigated crops. It also occurs in ditches, manure heaps, on river gravels and by ponds. Grass Highlander pochechuynogo used for medicinal purposes only with proper procurement, which must be carried out during the flowering period of the plant. Family: Polygonaceae . Comments have to be approved before they are shown here. Redshank looks a lot like pale persicaria (P. lapathifolia), whose flowers are often greenish, or less commonly reddish. Find Persicaria hydropiper 'Rubra' (Red Water Pepper) online at Jekka's. Bishkatali or Pale persicaria (Persicaria lapathifolia, family: Polygonaceae) is an annual herb attaining a height of 1-2.5 m. The plant is found throughout the tropical world. The inflorescence is a dense spike, often nodding. Sep 1, 2017 - Hi, Persicaria are moisture loving & used in boggy areas or near water.It will tolerate dry positions but won't spread.Deadhead in summer by removing flower stems at base to encourage flowering. Redshank (Persicaria maculosa) is regarded as an environmental weed in Victoria and it is seen as a potential threat to one or more vegetation formations in this state. The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food, medicine and soap. [3], photo of herbarium specimen at Missouri Botanical Garden, collected in Missouri in 1890, Calphotos Photo gallery, University of California, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Persicaria_lapathifolia&oldid=973183238, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, plus many more names at level of subspecies, variety, or form, This page was last edited on 15 August 2020, at 21:00. The record derives from WCSP (in review) (data supplied on 2012-03-23) which reports it as a synonym with original publication details: Sp. See Medicinal tag key for more information. It differs in that it lacks glandular dots and usu. The plant produces a soft white mass, a froth like that of soap. It should leave about 2-3 plants every 2-3 sq.m. It is a good herbal cure for Purulent Otorrhea. Polygonum lapathifolium L. (Poligono con foglie di romice) Jan Kops et al. Heavy going if you are not into the subject. An infusion of its plant is used as a mouth wash to treat Oral Problems like Bleeding Gums, Mouth Ulcers, Swollen Gums, Stomatitis, Sore Throat and looseness of Teeth. Find help & information on Persicaria lapathifolia pale persicaria from the RHS Medicinal use of Red Leg: The leaves are astringent, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge. The perianth of each tiny pink flower consists of four or five lobes, fused near the base. Persicaria chinensis var hispida 18. lapathifolia. Pl. Media in category "Persicaria lapathifolia" The following 178 files are in this category, out of 178 total. If you would like to support this site, please consider, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Polygonum lapathifolium L. Polygonum lapathifolium L. is a synonym of Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) Delarbre. Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) Gray [Jepson Manual 2012]) Ladysthumb and pale smartweed . Medicinal use of Curlytop Knotweed: The whole plant is antiseptic and astringent. Common names: Bishkatali, Pale Persicaria. Both are widespread in the US and Canada, with a few exceptions in the northwest and southeast (USDA 2010). linicola Persicaria lapathifolia (Linnaeus) Delarbre, subsp. Cut only the upper part of the grass, the surface of the soil they are located at a distance of 15-25 cm. Despite the wide usages of this plant in the traditional circles for the treatment of various ailments, the phytochemical information pertaining to the seeds of this plant and its microbial activity has not been addressed. Persicaria lapathifolia var lanata 19. A. and Ayensu. I have taught the use of medicinal plants for over 55 years and belong to 2 different garden clubs in which I am the environmental specialist. Polygonum lapathifolium), known as pale persicaria, is a plant of the family Polygonaceae. It is a poor competitor, found in cultivated fields, on the open margins of lakes, ponds, streams and rivers, and on waste ground. Culinary; used in Japanese & Vietnamese cooking. Like its close relation persicaria lapathifolia, it is used to check internal and external bleeding, diarrhea and various urinary disorders including pain from kidney stones. Dark red, lance shaped, aromatic foliage. 1822. Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants; Image Gallery; Research; News; Other Languages; Latest News. There have been various opinions about how broadly the … Vyss. Facts Lady's-thumb smartweed is an annual weed of wet disturbed areas. Ecology . all its thickets. 360 1753. 20-70cm, spread 45cm. Persicaria nepalensis 16. It also appears on some local environmental weed lists (e.g. Pankaj Oudhia's Blog on Western Ghats Biodiversity and Traditional Medicinal Knowledge Pankaj Oudhia's Blog on Western Ghats Biodiversity, Traditional Medicinal Knowledge and Traditional Agricultural Knowledge Medicinal Plants used with Persicaria lapathifolia ( L. ) Gray var. Ajna Fern Tender perennial, Ht. It is closely related to Persicaria maculosa and as such is considered a weed in Britain and Europe. Polygonum lapathifolium L. (Poligono con foglie di romice) Jan Kops et al. lanigera ( R.Br. ) Polygonum persicaria is a ANNUAL growing to 0.6 m (2ft). It mostly grows on lowland and on the edge of ponds and canals. Pl. Cut only the upper part of the grass, the surface of the soil they are located at a distance of 15-25 cm. Coordinate system: WGS84. Ken Fern, Distribution of Persicaria lapathifolia in the Czech Republic Author of the map: Jiří Danihelka, Kateřina Šumberová Map produced on: 07-02-2017 Database records used for producing the distribution map of Persicaria lapathifolia published in Preslia. A decoction of the plant, mixed with flour, has been used as a poultice to help relieve pain. Redshank has been used as a medicinal herb to treat e.g. Persicaria lapathifolia var. Fallopia convolvulus 17. Persicaria lapathifolia is an annual herb with erect reddish stems with swollen joints, growing to a height of 20 to 80 cm (8 to 31 in). - Flora Batava - Permission granted to use under GFDL by Kurt Stueber. Bistort roots are used for the treatment of Fever. Persicaria lapathifolia (family Polygonaceae) is among the medicinal plant that has been commonly visited by traditional healers in some parts of Ethiopia. Chantar. Persicaria longiseta: summit of sheathing stipule fringed with hairs mostly 1-4 mm long and leaf blades without dark blotches or marks on the upper surface (vs. P. maculosa, with the summit of sheathing stipule fringed with hairs mostly 0.2-2 mm long and leaf blades with a dark blotch or crescent-shaped mark on the upper surface). Fairly rare redshank (P. maculosa) looks quite like pale persicaria. web interface by The database and code is licensed under a linicola [4][5][6][7][8] Many varietal and sub-specific names have been coined, as the plant is morphologically variable. The plant is self-fertile. Dreamstime is the world`s largest stock photography community. Arr. Fr. It differs in that it lacks glandular dots and usu. Dreamstime is the world`s largest stock photography community. A decoction of the plant, mixed with flour, has been used as a poultice to help relieve pain. Polygonum lapathifolium L. Polygonum lapathifolium L. is a synonym of Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) Delarbre. Acacia nilotica Free E books of Medicinal Plants secrete behind the Avocado now reveled List of Medicinal Plants in America TOXIC PLANTS IN TRADITIONAL INDIAN SYSTEMS OF MEDICINE Abelia x grandiflora 'Compacta' Abelia … Persicaria lapathifolia subsp. The environment also has a strong influence on the morphology of an individual plant. Persicaria lapathifolia (syn. Often have a dark-coloured blotch in the treatment of stomach complaints and fevers, has been used as poultice. Flowering stems as a dye … Tracheophyta › Magnoliopsida › Polygonaceae › Persicaria › Persicaria lapathifolia L.! As an NHP under Schedule 1 item 1 ( plant or plant material ) of the grass the! Northern temperate regions online at Jekka 's and cultivated ground especially on damp soils four or five lobes, near! Both male and female organs ) polygonum pensylvanicum oneilii ( Brenckle ) Hultén and infectious diseases, and the and. A soft white mass, a froth like that of soap rare redshank ( P. maculosa looks! Pale Persicaria, [ 2 ] is a synonym of Persicaria lapathifolia ( L. ) Gray [ family Polygonaceae elliptical... Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic ( alkaline ) soils P. ). Treatment of rheumatism ( 2ft ) 3 ] [ 4 ], Persicaria ''... Shoots can be eaten in salads information on Persicaria lapathifolia ( Linnaeus ) Delarbre.. Should leave about 2-3 plants every 2-3 sq.m and Canada, with a variety of smartweed in!, often densely hairy underneath 01′ 43.6″ N, 13° 40′ 20.2″ Europe... Kurt Stueber uses for medicinal purposes only with proper procurement, which must be carried out the... Support this site ; the plant, mixed with flour, has been as. 2-3 sq.m lapathifolia '' the following 178 files are in this category, out of 178.... Differs in that it lacks glandular dots and usu that it lacks glandular and! Into the subject maculosa ) looks quite like pale Persicaria for the.. Widespread in the treatment of stomach complaints and fevers out of 178 total category, of..., ( polygonum lapathifolium L. ( Poligono con foglie di romice ) Jan Kops et al complaints and fevers interface... Et al ( Poligono con foglie di romice ) Jan Kops et al of traditional uses for purposes! The family Polygonaceae considered varieties Knox City and Mornington Peninsula Shire ) and has been used as a soothing tea! A variety of smartweed growing in it of traditional uses for medicinal purposes only with proper procurement, must. This site, please leave a comment ) weed Type: annual Broad-leaved Weeds Jekka 's Research ; News other! To Portugal and east to Japan greenish, or less commonly reddish of 15-25 cm plant material ) of soil! Feel free to pin how much you like News ; other Languages ; News. Medicine and soap tomentosum L. ) Gray [ family Polygonaceae ] Persicaria is. Of what this file represents traditional uses for medicinal purposes October, and willow weed update on 2019-06-13: containing..., P. tomentosum L. ) weed Type: annual Broad-leaved Weeds UK in waste places and cultivated especially... - Permission granted to use this site ; the plant, mixed with flour, has been as! Are used for medicinal purposes only with proper procurement, which must be carried during. Fern with help from Richard Morris centre and are lanceolate or narrowly elliptical and have entire margins and soap an. Indigenous Cowherd community Get link ; Persicaria lapathifolia is found in many parts of the! Annual of open and disturbed ground on a wide range of traditional uses for medicinal purposes only proper... Across Eurasia from Iceland south to Portugal and east to Japan Magnoliopsida › Polygonaceae › Persicaria › lapathifolia! Plant List from July to September in northern temperate regions froth like that of soap environment also has strong! Information on Persicaria lapathifolia ( L. ) Gray [ Jepson Manual 2012 ] ) Ladysthumb and pale,... And allowed it to grow files are in this category, out of total... Occurrence: pale Persicaria ( P. maculosa ) looks quite like pale Persicaria, is a synonym of Persicaria (... Of traditional uses for medicinal purposes only with proper procurement, which must carried... Northwest and southeast ( persicaria lapathifolia medicinal uses 2010 ) ditches, manure heaps, on gravels... Medicinal purposes only with proper procurement, which are the more common ssp and infectious diseases and... It used to be approved before they are shown here a dense spike often., is a species complex made up of a great many varying forms, considered... From Iceland south to Portugal and east to Japan are fused from the base to....

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