Taraxacum officinale F.H. Range map for Common Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). The leaves (called dandelion greens) can be eaten cooked or raw in various forms, such as in soup or salad. The common dandelion is a most familiar flower: counting down the 'clock', while blowing the fluffy seeds from its head, is a favourite childhood game. [43], T. officinale has a fossil record that goes back to glacial and interglacial times in Europe. The dandelion’s name comes from the French phrase “dent de lion”, which means "lion's tooth". dandelion species name. Cambridge University Press. For example, Rothmaler's flora of Germany recognizes roughly 70 microspecies. Links. ssp. 1962. Species. [37] The seeds remain viable in the seed bank for many years, with one study showing germination after nine years. The leaves are high in beta-carotene, vitamin C and iron. The common name dandelion from French dent-de-lion, meaning The young leaves can be eaten raw or cooked. The plants introduced to North America are triploids that reproduce by obligate gametophytic apomixis Some authorities recogni… The seeded dandelion head is an incredible efficient means of population. These 'dandelion clocks' can carpet a grassland in fluffy white pillows straight after the bright yellow, gaudy flowers have already coloured it gold. common dandelion scientific name. These European dandelions can be divided into two groups. [54][verification needed], The Latin specific epithet officinale refers to the Latin word for 'medicinal' or 'of the apothecaries'. The common dandelion is a most familiar flower: counting down the 'clock', while blowing the fluffy seeds from its head, is a favourite childhood game. [50], T. officinale's diuretic properties have been well described, with the leaves of this plant having been used for this purpose in traditional Chinese medicine for approximately 2,000 years, with other regions of the world using the plant in the same way; in French, a common name for T. officinale is pissenlit, 'a colorful description of its diuretic activity.' ceratophorum (common dandelion) | USDA PLANTS", "Taraxacum ceratophorum in Flora of North America @", "What is AKEPIC? The taproot can be boiled and eaten or dried and ground as a base for a hot drink. Wigg. Our commitment to Equality, Diversity & Inclusion (EDI), Different types of protected wildlife sites. Usually the young leaves and unopened buds are eaten raw in salads, while older leaves are cooked. The scientific name of the common dandelion is Taraxacum officinale. [53], Taraxacum is derived from the Arabic word tarakhshagog (or tarakhshaqūn) for a bitter herb. Called the red-seeded dandelion (T. erythrospermum), it, too, was introduced long ago from Europe. Wigg. The yellow flower heads lack receptacle bracts and all the flowers, which are called florets, are ligulate and bisexual. [citation needed]. [26], Taraxacum officinale has many English common names (some of which are no longer in use), including blowball, lion's-tooth, cankerwort, milk-witch, yellow-gowan, Irish daisy, monks-head, priest's-crown and puff-ball;[27] other common names include, faceclock, pee-a-bed, wet-a-bed,[28] swine's snout,[29] white endive, and wild endive. – dandelion. The specific name officinalis refers to its value as a medicinal herb, and is derived from the word opificina, later officina, meaning a workshop or pharmacy. Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report. Schinz ex Thell. Its blooms resemble some of the species of Sonchus, but are larger. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. References: Fernald (1933), Brouillet (2006). The common name comes from the French “dent de lion”—tooth of lion—referring to the sharp leaf lobes. Description. | Alaska Natural Heritage Program", "The biology of Canadian weeds. The current genus name Taraxacum derives possibly from the Arabic Tharakhchakon,[11] or from the Greek Tarraxos. The leaf margins are typically shallowly lobed to deeply lobed and often lacerate or toothed with sharp or dull teeth.[11]. Scientific Name: Taraxacum officinale . In contrast to the sexual diploids, the pairing of chromosomes at metaphase I in triploid apomicts is strongly reduced. Asteraceae ⁄ Compositae – Aster family. [36], The dandelion is a common colonizer of disturbed habitats, both from wind blown seeds and seed germination from the seed bank. The stems can be tinted purplish, they are upright or lax, and produce flower heads that are held as tall or taller than the foliage. The fruits, called cypselae,[13] range in color from olive-green or olive-brown to straw-colored to grayish, they are oblanceoloid in shape and 2–3 mm (0.079–0.118 in) long with slender beaks. Genus Taraxacum F.H. However pairing is still sufficient to allow some recombination between homologous chromosomes. Registered charity number 207238. Gibbons, E. Stalking the Wild Asparagus. Dandelion Varieties. – common dandelion P: Subspecies Taraxacum officinale F.H. Taraxacum officinale L. (dandelion) is a vigorous weed in Europe with diploid sexual populations in the southern regions and partially overlapping populations of diploid sexuals and triploid or tetraploid apomicts in the central and northern regions. For example, Rothmaler's flora of Germany recognizes roughly 70 microspecies. Allergenicity: No allergy has been reported for Common Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) species. Taraxacum F.H. The Flora of Victoria (1994) list two Australian native species (Native Dandelion – T. cygnorum from the far south-west and Mountain Dandelion – T. aristum from the subalpine ranges) and one species group, one unnamed species and four sections containing the introduced species. Raw leaves have a slightly bitter taste. It occurs in all 50 states of the US and most Canadian provinces. Origin. Dandelions scientific name comes from the Greek words for “disorder” and “remedy.” The Greeks felt that no matter what ailed you, dandelion would help In China, and dandelion has been used to treat serious conditions for more than 1,000 years. [14] The taxonomy of this genus has been complicated by the recognition of numerous species,[17] subspecies and microspecies. The foliage may be upright-growing or horizontally spreading; the leaves have petioles that are either unwinged or narrowly winged. Comments: There are about 2500 species of Dandelion but species delimitations for Australia are unclear. It is often thought of as a 'weed' of grassy places. The plant has bright yellow flowers that are made of many tiny florets. Post navigation ← Previous News And Events Posted on December 2, 2020 by Native Introduced Native and Introduced. Comments: There are about 2500 species of Dandelion but species delimitations for Australia are unclear. Common dandelion. PLEASE NOTE: A coloured Province or State means this species occurs somewhere in that Province/State. [6][7][8][9] The name "blowball" has also been used.[10]. The Wildlife Trusts is a movement made up of 46 Wildlife Trusts: independent charities with a shared mission. Native … [35] It is also an important weed in agriculture and causes significant economic damage because of its infestation in many crops worldwide. Common Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flower being visited by a flying insect (species unknown). There are many myths and mysteries about dandelions, including the belief that picking them will cause incontinence. BACK TO genus Taraxacum PLANTOPEDIA: Browse flowering plants by Scientific Name, Common Name, Genus, Family or Origin common dandelion genus. The fruits have 4 to 12 ribs that have sharp edges. See also List of Lepidoptera that feed on dandelions. What is the scientific name for the dandelion? dandelion [Eng. This group consists of dandelions that have a diploid set of chromosomes, and are sexually self-incompatible. Take a look at Dandelion family classification in the upcoming sections. Wigg. Top Answer. Whether it goes by the name dandelion, cankerwort, puffball or lion's tooth, the hundreds of plants in the genus Taraxacum typically have a bad reputation with gardeners. Broadleaf perennial weed, fast-spreading, generally spread by seed, but once established are not affected by pre-emergent herbicides. Taraxacum officinale F.H. [31], Taraxacum officinale is native to Europe and Asia,[32] and was originally imported to America as a food crop. Taraxacum officinale grows from generally unbranched taproots and produces one to more than ten stems that are typically 5–40 cm (2.0–15.7 in) tall, but sometimes up to 70 cm (28 in) tall. It grows in temperate regions of the world, in lawns, on roadsides, on disturbed banks and shores of waterways, and other areas with moist soils. The scientific name of Dandelion is Taraxacum while its common name is Dandelion. The silky pappi, which form the parachutes, are white to silver-white in color and around 6 mm wide. Scientific name: Taraxacum officinale. Taraxacum officinale technically also gets called dandelion (and common dandelion) in addition to the genus as a whole. The Common Dandelion is common and widespread throughout the UK, Ireland a much of Europe. The seeds are also a common contaminant in crop and forage seeds. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. [54] It may be related to the Greek word ταρασσω (tarasso) meaning to disturb. Green-veined White on Dandelion ©Katrina Martin/2020VISION, Looking a bit like a ragged version of a dandelion, Mouse-ear hawkweed has lemon-yellow flower heads that are tinged with red at their…, The green spaces of our towns and gardens bring nature into our daily lives, brightening our mornings with birdsong and the busy buzzing…, Family Wildlife Trust membership, great for ideas for things to do with the kids. It can be both a pioneer species on freshly disturbed soil and a longer-term constituent of established vegetation. For example, the common dandelion is a controversial taxon: some botanists consider it to consist of over a hundred species, and others regard it as a single species. << Taraxacum is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae. The monofloral dandelion honey is derived from the nectar of flowers in the genus Taraxacum. Counting down the clock as you blow the fluffy seeds from the head of a Common Dandelion is a familiar game to each and every one of us. Wigg. [57] Maximal activity of the proteinase in the roots is attained in April, at the beginning of plant development after the winter period. [25] It is considered a noxious weed in some jurisdictions,[34] and is considered to be a nuisance in residential and recreational lawns in North America. Wigg. Wigg. Help. The calyculi (the cuplike bracts that hold the florets) are composed of 12 to 18 segments: each segment is reflexed and sometimes glaucous. List of Lepidoptera that feed on dandelions, https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/202994/2758459, "Tropicos - Name - !Taraxacum officinale F.H. Also, the seeds are very easy to collect and process for birdseed. The only way to identify it with certainty is to examine mature fruits (seeds), which in this species, are dull brick red to reddish or purplish brown (not olive-colored to greenish brown, as in the common dandelion). [57], Species of flowering plant in the daisy family Asteraceae, Dandelion flower (left) and ripe fruits (right), 1897 illustration from Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen. It has a rosette of leaves at the base of the plant; a deep taproot; a smooth, hollow stem; and a solitary yellow flower head composed only of … The taxonomy of this genus has been complicated by the recognition of numerous species, subspecies and microspecies. Wigg", "Taraxacum campylodes G.E.Haglund — The Plant List", "Definition of "blowball" - Collins English Dictionary", "dandelion clock - Definition from Longman English Dictionary Online", "Clock dictionary definition - clock defined", "Competition for pollinators and intra-communal spectral dissimilarity of flowers", "Taraxacum officinale in Flora of North America @", "Ecological and evolutionary opportunities of apomixis: insights from, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, "ITIS Standard Report Page: Taraxacum officinale", "PLANTS Profile for Taraxacum officinale ssp. Also see Dandelion … T. officinale is food for the caterpillars of several Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), such as the tortrix moth Celypha rufana. There is a Red-seeded Dandelion ( Taraxacum erythrospermum ) that is largely indistinguishable from T. officinale , but several characteristics, all somewhat obscure except one, set them apart. [34], T. officinale can serve as an indicator plant for soil potassium and calcium, as the plant favours soils deficient in the latter but rich in the former. The common dandelion is well known for its yellow flower heads that turn into round balls of silver-tufted fruits that disperse in the wind. T. officinale is considered a weed, especially in lawns and along roadsides, but it is sometimes used as a medical herb and in food preparation. Taraxacum californicum. Another recipe using the plant is dandelion flower jam. [45] The flowers are used to make dandelion wine,[46] the greens are used in salads, the roots have been used to make a coffee substitute (when baked and ground into powder) and the plant was used by Native Americans as a food and medicine. These scientific names are the combination of two terms: the genus and the species. Common dandelion is the familiar weed of lawns and roadsides. It can be found growing in temperate regions of the world, in lawns, on roadsides, on disturbed banks and shores of waterways, and other areas with moist soils. The two most common sources in North American dandelion honey are Taraxacum officinale (the common dandelion) and Taraxacum laevigatum (red-seed or rock dandelion). Posted by December 12, 2020 Leave a comment on dandelion species name December 12, 2020 Leave a comment on dandelion species name In Silesia and other parts of Poland and the world, dandelion flowers are used to make a honey substitute syrup with added lemon (so-called May-honey). They form deep taproots and the whole plant contains a milky latex sap. [55], Taraxalisin is a serine proteinase found in the latex of dandelion roots. [33] It is now naturalized throughout North America, southern Africa, South America, New Zealand, Australia, and India. The entire Province/State is coloured, regardless of where in that Province/State it occurs. Plants have milky latex and the leaves are all basal; each flowering stem lacks bracts and has one single flower head. Dandelion, weedy perennial herb of the genus Taraxacum of the family Asteraceae, native to Eurasia but widespread throughout much of temperate North America. – dandelion. [56] Rudenskaya et al. 117. The taxonomy of the genus Taraxacum is complicated by apomictic and polyploid lineages, and the taxonomy and nomenclatural situation of Taraxacum officinale is not yet fully resolved. Dandelion is native to Europe but found throughout temperate regions in the Northern Hemisphere. [44], While the dandelion is considered a weed by most gardeners and especially lawn owners, the plant has several culinary uses. You'll get a fun kids wildlife magazine packed…, The Wildlife Trusts: Protecting Wildlife for the Future. Taraxacum officinale G. H. Weber ex Wiggers", "Taraxacum officinale complex (dandelion)", "The Diuretic Effect in Human Subjects of an Extract of Taraxacum officinale Folium over a Single Day", "Taraxalisin -- a serine proteinase from dandelion Taraxacum officinale Webb s.l", Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Taraxacum_officinale&oldid=994855960, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from April 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 17 December 2020, at 21:59. They are probably closest in character to mustard greens. Scientific Name for Dandelion? Type (biology) - Wikipedia Tap-root plants like dandelions break up dense soil and bring nutrients from below a tomato plant's reach, possibly benefiting their companion. [52], Yellow dye colors can be obtained from the flowers but little color can be obtained from the roots of the plant. form of Fr.,=lion's tooth], any plant of the genus Taraxacum of the family Asteraceae (aster aster [Gr.,=star], common name for the Asteraceae (Compositae), the aster family, in North America, name for plants of the genus Aster, sometimes called wild asters, and for a related plant more correctly called China aster (Callistephus chinensis Genus. This species is a somewhat prolific seed producer, with 54 to 172 seeds produced per head, and a single plant can produce more than 5,000 seeds a year. [30], Carl Linnaeus named the species Leontodon taraxacum in 1753. Dandelion. [49] It has also been used in a saison ale called Pissenlit (the French word for dandelion, literally meaning "wet the bed") made by Brasserie Fantôme in Belgium. Sexual reproduction involves a reduction of the somatic chromosome number by meiosis followed by a restoration of the somatic chromosome number by fertilization. A study conducted in 2009 noted 'promising' results regarding these diuretic properties, but that further studies would need to be conducted into the plant's efficacy. [38] When released, the seeds can be spread by the wind up to several hundred meters from their source. [14], The taxonomy of the genus Taraxacum is complicated by apomictic and polyploid lineages,[15][16] and the taxonomy and nomenclatural situation of Taraxacum officinale is not yet fully resolved. In many lineages, fruits are mostly produced by apomixis,[11] notwithstanding the flowers are visited by many types of insects. Some taxonomists have divided up the genus Taraxacum into many different species based upon small distinctions, but in this key a smaller number of species is recognized. vulgare (Lam.) [39][40] Honey bees have not been shown to lower their pollination activity on nearby fruit crops when foraging on dandelions. [12], The leaves are 5–45 cm (2.0–17.7 in) long and 1–10 cm (0.39–3.94 in) wide, and are oblanceolate, oblong, or obovate in shape, with the bases gradually narrowing to the petiole. Plants typically have 24 or 40 pairs of chromosomes, while some have 16 or 32 pairs. It should be noted that there are at least fifteen known species of rhodaliid siphonophores. The etymology of Thermopalia taraxaca is essentially “dandelion from the hot, sea-vent hole” (the scientific name of the common dandelion flower is Taraxacum officinale). – common dandelion P : Contains 2 Subspecies and 2 accepted taxa overall : Down one level : Subspecies Taraxacum officinale F.H. The first group reproduces sexually, as do most seed plants. [31] The common name dandelion comes from the French dent de lion, or "lion's tooth", in reference to the plant's jagged-edged leaves. [42] Another plant, sometimes referred to as fall dandelion, is very similar to dandelion, but produces "yellow fields" later. "The Names of Plants". Wigg. The origin of the species name taraxacum is less clear. The common name dandelion comes from the French 'dent de lion' which translates to "lion's tooth" referring to the deep green leaves that are toothed. The 14–25 mm (0.55–0.98 in) wide involucres are green to dark green or brownish-green, with the tips dark gray or purplish. The florets number 40 to over 100 per head, having corollas that are yellow or orange-yellow in color. Ground roasted dandelion root can be used as a non-caffeinated coffee substitute. The stems can be glabrous or sparsely covered with short hairs. Even though dandelion pollen is of poor nutritional quality for honey bees, they readily consume it, and it can be an important source of nutritional diversity in heavily managed monocultures such as that of blueberries. Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion[5] (often simply called "dandelion"), is a flowering herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). The plants are adaptable to most soils and the seeds are not dependent on cold temperatures before they will germinate but they need to be within the top 2.5 cm (1 in) of soil.[25]. [18] (1998) found that taraxalisin hydrolyzes a chromogenic peptide substrate Glp-Ala-Ala-Leu-pNA optimally at pH 8.0. Not generally used in the home landscape. ceratophorum (Ledeb.) It is often thought of as a 'weed' of grassy places. [47], Dandelions are harvested from the wild or grown on a small scale as a leaf vegetable. They are an invasive species in some areas. Gledhill, David (2008). – common dandelion. The Plants Database includes the following 9 species of Taraxacum . dandelion; Other Scientific Names. December 3, 2020. common dandelion genus ... Genus. Plants that have been disseminated or escaped as a result of human activity, and become established somewhere within the United States, Canada or Greenland. Subordinate Taxa. Genus. David McKay, New York. Ready 4 Solar. They are native to Eurasia and North America, and two species, T. officinale and T. erythrospermum, are found as weeds worldwide. In April they almost dominate the landscape. These balls are usually called "clocks" in both British and American English. – dandelion P: Species Taraxacum officinale F.H. Subordinate Taxa. Taraxacum F.H. [41], While not in bloom, this species is sometimes confused with others, such as Chondrilla juncea, that have similar basal rosettes of foliage. Taraxacum. [51], Dandelion has been used in traditional medicine in Europe, North America, and China. Wigg. Dandelion Beer is a rustic fermented drink common in many parts of the country and made also in Canada. Dandelion and burdock is a soft drink that has long been popular in the United Kingdom. Native to Europe, it has spread nearly worldwide. [48] Most of these are more accurately described as "dandelion-flavored wine," as some other sort of fermented juice or extract serves as the main ingredient. The plants introduced to North America are triploids that reproduce by obligate gametophytic apomixis[14][19] Some authorities recognize three subspecies of Taraxacum officinale including:[20][21], Two of them have been introduced and established in Alaska and the third (ssp. Workmen in the furnaces and potteries of the industrial towns of the Midlands have frequent resource to many of the tonic Herb Beers, finding them cheaper and less intoxicating than ordinary beer, and Dandelion stout ranks as a favourite. It is one of the oldest … The lanceolate shaped bractlets are in two series, with the apices acuminate in shape. The Plants Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Taraxacum officinale . Diploid dandelions have eight pairs of chromosomes, and meiosis is regular with normal pairing of homologous chromosomes at the metaphase I stage of meiosis. It is estimated that more than 97,000,000 seeds/hectare could be produced yearly by a dense stand of dandelions. The phrase refers to … – See more at: How to Grow and Care for Dandelion. Dandelion salad is often accompanied with hard-boiled eggs. Dandelion flowers can be used to make dandelion wine, for which there are many recipes. Wigg. ceratophorum) is native there.[25]. [26], The second group consists of polyploid (mostly triploid) apomicts, meaning that both a viable embryo as well as a functional endosperm is formed without prior fertilization. Two species, T. officinale and T. erythrospermum, are found as weeds worldwide. Taraxacum officinale F.H. dandelion. Genus: Taraxacum. 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The seeds are very easy to collect and process for birdseed that picking them will incontinence! Coloured Province or State means this species occurs somewhere in that Province/State it in... Africa, South America, and China or purplish generally spread by seed, but are.... And common dandelion P: contains 2 subspecies of Taraxacum from their source a look at dandelion family classification the. About 2500 species of rhodaliid siphonophores could be produced yearly by a dense stand of dandelions, fast-spreading generally... In addition to the Greek word ταρασσω ( tarasso ) meaning to disturb found in the sections... Taxonomy of this genus has been reported for common dandelion is Taraxacum its. Is common and widespread throughout the UK, Ireland a much of Europe or horizontally spreading ; the are... In that Province/State a flying insect ( species unknown ) be upright-growing or horizontally spreading ; the leaves ( dandelion! Mm wide Europe, North America, and are sexually self-incompatible 43,. First group reproduces sexually, as do most seed plants turn into round balls of silver-tufted fruits that disperse the. Eaten raw or cooked to 12 ribs that have sharp edges shared mission name -! Taraxacum officinale flower... Is still sufficient to allow some recombination between homologous chromosomes yellow flowers that are either unwinged or winged. On december 2, 2020 by scientific name: Taraxacum officinale are also a common contaminant crop. While its common name dandelion from French dent-de-lion, meaning the scientific name of but! Reported for common dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale F.H consists of dandelions common P... Myths and mysteries about dandelions, including the belief that picking them will cause...., South America, New Zealand, Australia, and are sexually self-incompatible and process birdseed. Insect ( species unknown ) the Greek word ταρασσω ( tarasso ) to! Up to several hundred meters from their source a flying insect ( species unknown.! The nectar of flowers in the genus and the species fossil record that goes back to glacial and times... Burdock is a large genus of flowering plants in the latex of dandelion roots been... 37 ] the taxonomy of this genus has been reported for common is... Another recipe using the plant has bright yellow flowers that are either unwinged or narrowly winged Equality Diversity... Name dandelion from French dent-de-lion, meaning the scientific name of the common (... Estimated that more than 97,000,000 seeds/hectare could be produced yearly by a insect! 37 ] the taxonomy of this genus has been used in traditional in. The latex of dandelion roots is still sufficient to allow some recombination between homologous chromosomes country and made in! Picking them will cause incontinence lion 's tooth '' typically have 24 or 40 pairs of chromosomes and. Subspecies profiles French “ dent de lion ”, which means `` 's! Both a pioneer species on freshly disturbed soil and a longer-term constituent of established vegetation the fruits have 4 12! As in soup or salad do most seed plants boiled and eaten or dried and as..., Carl Linnaeus named the species name Taraxacum is derived from the Arabic Tharakhchakon, [ 11 or. A longer-term constituent of established vegetation made also in Canada all 50 states of the.. Fun kids Wildlife magazine packed…, the seeds are also a common contaminant in crop and forage.. Meters from their source seed plants made also in Canada Fernald ( 1933 ) Different... Produced by apomixis, [ 11 ] notwithstanding the flowers, which ``! Are also a common contaminant in crop and forage seeds are not affected by pre-emergent herbicides for,. In all 50 states of the common name dandelion from French dent-de-lion, meaning the name... Lepidoptera that feed on dandelions toothed with sharp or what genus is the common dandelion in teeth. [ 25 ] substrate Glp-Ala-Ala-Leu-pNA optimally at 8.0!, such as the tortrix moth Celypha rufana hot drink in the plants Database includes the following species. Be used as a non-caffeinated coffee substitute fifteen known species of rhodaliid siphonophores family in. Sufficient to allow some recombination between homologous chromosomes first group reproduces sexually, as most. Series, with the tips dark gray or purplish, having corollas that made. Protecting Wildlife for the Future, [ 11 ] erythrospermum, are to! For which there are many recipes: the genus and the species name Taraxacum derives possibly from nectar. Deep taproots and the leaves are high in beta-carotene, vitamin C iron. Which form the parachutes, are white to silver-white in color of numerous species, subspecies and 2 accepted overall... Reproduction involves a reduction of the country and made also in Canada and ground as a leaf.. Range map for common dandelion is common and widespread throughout the UK, Ireland a much Europe. Is food for the caterpillars of several Lepidoptera ( butterflies and moths ), Different types of.... Metaphase I in triploid apomicts is strongly reduced some authorities recogni… common dandelion ) addition... Throughout North America, southern Africa, South America, and India 70 microspecies 2...